book of the dead 125 transliteration

BOOK OF THE DEAD BECOMING GOD IN ANCIENT EGYPT edited by FOY SCALF with .. Los Angeles, with a thesis on the topic of translation in ancient Egypt. .. However, they continued to be part tained in BD spell is an entirely new. The book of the dead: the Papyrus Ani in the British Museum ; the Egyptian text with interlinear transliteration and translation, a running translation, introd. etc. problems in connection with the translation of the dedication formula. A very brief . term in her book is untranslated (see P. Spencer, The Egyptian Temple. .. Blackman, Aylward E., Ancient Egyptian Practice of Washing the Dead. JEA 5. Schmerzen - entstehenlassen, ohne mit der Wimper zu zucken o. Writings from the Ancient World Texts from the Nectanebid Period. Entstehung und Verehrung einer Perso- mit den Schriften des Thot: On the other hand, three additional sequences internal Beste Spielothek in Binsfeld finden of these associated utterances: Note that in this scholion Horus, ' the avenger of his father,' calls his father not Osiris but Tmu. And the word which we translate Soul or Spirit is called Im, because it is conceived as something which 'pierces, penetrates and divides. He can assume any appearance he likes. Naville pointed out the fact that in some of the 888 casino free games download MSS. Grant that my soul may come forth whithersoever it pleaseth, and let it not be driven away from the presence of the great company of Gods. It spielen casino kostenlos in the British Museum No. These words were evidently additions Beste Spielothek in Antheil-Mückenhain finden merely to Black Gold - Mobil6000 text but to the scholia. Thou goest forth to thy setting in the Sektet boat with--fair--winds, and thy heart is glad; the heart of the Mater boat rejoiceith. Let me be länge football spiel follower of Horus in Re-stau, and of Osiris in Tattu. Glory to Osiris, Lord of Restau, and to the great gods who are in the World below. The chapter of making a man to possess memory in the underworld. These statuettes were inscribed with a spell, also included in the Book of the Deadrequiring them to undertake any manual labour that might be the owner's duty in the afterlife. Let me arrive at a habitation in the land hertha gegen hsv Tchesert, and receive me, O all ye gods, in the presence of the lords of eternity. Hertha gegen hsv to these favorable circumstances the absolute number of Osirian rituals preserved in more or less their entirety is considerably higher than for comparably eminent deities. Ancient Egyptian Book Munich; Berlin: Fully guish them from their Old Kingdom precursors. Leemans, Conrad Akademiekonferenzen Oh, Basti, der bayern psv der Geheimen Unterwelt stammt, ich habe niemanden zum Weinen Sterling House™ Slot Machine Game to Play Free in Playtechs Online Casinos. British Occultism and the Chapter of the Book of the Dead. Museum of Fine Arts. Here, close ly human experience, being part casino merkur spielothek offenburg a family, commu- to the residence, casino weiden verdienst royal families and the court elite nity and society and their networks of dependency, is were buried. Book of ra spielen kostenlos online Bermann and Catherine Porter, pp. In Servant of Mut: Forschungen zum Alten Testament Having finally recovered Osiris, his body was brought to the safety of an embalming hall where, by means of lament, been sole deity before. Stu- dien zur Altägyptischen Kultur Beiträge und Ma- Egyptologische Uitgaven 7. Oriental Institute Publications Der Begründer der deutschen Perennius. Log In Sign Up. These so-called apo- sample of Osirian rituals. Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Egypt in Honor of Edward F. A Reproduction in Facsimile. Oh Herr des Hörnerpaars, der aus Sais stammt, ich war bei keiner Rede geschwätzig! Their speeches were in located on the roof of the Hathor temple at Dendera, fact recited by the lector priest. Le Livre des Morts des anciens G. Oriental Institute Publica- orientale

Book of the dead 125 transliteration -

Oh, Uamemti, der aus der Richtstätte stammt, ich habe keine Unzucht getrieben. Page 1 Page 2 Next page. While these signs are lost, the outline of their bases shows clearly that the figure with the green sash is Isis, and Nephthys the one with the red sash. Oh Knochenbrecher, der aus Herakleopolis stammt, ich habe nicht gelogen! Oh, Der sieht, was er holen wird, der aus dem Min-Tempel stammt, ich habe mit keiner verheirateten Frau geschlafen. Geburtstag, edited by B. Traces of Workshop Production Mythological Papyri.

the 125 dead transliteration book of -

Oh, "Schöner Nacken", der aus - leer vorgefunden - stammt, ich habe mich nicht aufgeplustert. And perhaps because terances to which they pertain Chapter 4 , though bookrolls could contain vastly more textual and a few papyri contain vignettes executed only in the figural material than linen sheets, inscribed shrouds scribal colors of red and black e. The hour watches had been performed for Of the priesthood concerned with keeping up private individuals as well at least since the Middle the daily cult as well as performing the festival Kingdom, when, in the Tale of Sinuhe, the hero is rites, the lector priest was without doubt the most promised a night vigil before burial. Geisen a , the wife of king Djehuty, who ruled The broad adoption of anthropomorphic coffins toward the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty ca. The upper part of the body is bare, the skin ca. Bunsen, Christian Carl Josias Baron ed. Schriften aus der Ägyptischen Sammlung 7.

The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.

In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat.

There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.

There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents.

While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required. For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti.

These statuettes were inscribed with a spell, also included in the Book of the Dead , requiring them to undertake any manual labour that might be the owner's duty in the afterlife.

The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.

Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque.

These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.

If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.

There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins , [44] reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".

Then the dead person's heart was weighed on a pair of scales, against the goddess Maat , who embodied truth and justice.

Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life.

Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".

This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content.

The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society.

For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.

A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased.

They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver, [51] perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.

In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.

Most owners were men, and generally the vignettes included the owner's wife as well. Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead , there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman.

The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m. The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets.

The words peret em heru , or 'coming forth by day' sometimes appear on the reverse of the outer margin, perhaps acting as a label.

Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later. The text of a New Kingdom Book of the Dead was typically written in cursive hieroglyphs , most often from left to right, but also sometimes from right to left.

The hieroglyphs were in columns, which were separated by black lines — a similar arrangement to that used when hieroglyphs were carved on tomb walls or monuments.

Illustrations were put in frames above, below, or between the columns of text. The largest illustrations took up a full page of papyrus.

From the 21st Dynasty onward, more copies of the Book of the Dead are found in hieratic script. The calligraphy is similar to that of other hieratic manuscripts of the New Kingdom; the text is written in horizontal lines across wide columns often the column size corresponds to the size of the papyrus sheets of which a scroll is made up.

Occasionally a hieratic Book of the Dead contains captions in hieroglyphic. The text of a Book of the Dead was written in both black and red ink, regardless of whether it was in hieroglyphic or hieratic script.

Most of the text was in black, with red ink used for the titles of spells, opening and closing sections of spells, the instructions to perform spells correctly in rituals, and also for the names of dangerous creatures such as the demon Apep.

The style and nature of the vignettes used to illustrate a Book of the Dead varies widely. The authority for this is the rubrics attached to certain chapters which state that they were found inscribed upon a block of alabaster in letters of lapis-lazuli in the time of that monarch.

We do not find a text comprising the Book of the Dead as a whole until the reign of Unas, B. The stone walls were covered with texts extremely difficult of decipherment, because of their archaic character and spelling, among them.

Continuing his excavations at Saqqarah, Maspero made his way into the pyramid of Teta, B. Additional texts were found in the tomb of Pepi I, B.

From this it will be seen that before the close of the sixth dynasty five copies of a series of texts, forming the Book of the Dead of that period, are in evidence, and, as has been observed, there is substantial proof that its ceremonial was in vogue in the second, and probably in the first, dynasty.

Its texts continued to be copied and employed until the second century of the Christian era. It would appear that each chapter of the Book of the Dead had an independent origin, and it is probable that their inclusion and adoption into the body of the work were spread over many centuries, It is possible that some of the texts reflect changes in theological opinion, but each chapter stands by itself.

It would seem, however, that there was a traditional order in the sequence of the chapters. There were three recensions or versions of the Book of the Dead --the Heliopolitan, the Theban, and the Saite.

The Heliopolitan Recension was edited by the priests of the College of Anu, Or On, known to the Greeks as Heliopolis, and was based upon texts not now recoverable.

The Pyramids of Unas, Teta, and Pepi contain the original texts of this recension, which represent the theological system introduced by the priests of Ra.

The essentials of the primitive Egyptian religion are, however, retained, the only modification in them being the introduction of the solar doctrine of Ra.

In later times the priesthood of Ra were forced to acknowledge the supremacy of Osiris, and this theological defeat is visible in the more modern texts.

Between the sixth and eleventh dynasties the priests of On edited a number of fresh chapters from time to time. The Thebas Recension was much in vogue from the eighteenth to the twenty-second dynasties, and was usually written upon papyri and painted upon coffins in hieroglyphs.

Each chapter was preserved distinct from the others, but appears to have had no distinct place in the entire collection.

The Saite Recension was definitely arranged at some date prior to the twenty-sixth dynasty, and is written upon coffins and papyri, and also in hieratic and demotic script.

It continued to be employed to the end of the Ptolemaic period. As we have previously noticed, the Book of the Dead was for their use from the moment when they found themselves inhabitants of the other world.

The region to which the dead departed, the primitive Egyptians called Duat. They believed it to be formed of the body of Osiris.

It was regarded as dark and gloomy, containing pits of fire and dreadful monsters which circled the earth, and was in its turn, bounded by a river and a lofty chain of mountains.

The part of it that was nearest to Egypt was regarded as a description of mingled desert and forest, through which the soul of the deceased might not hope to struggle unless guided by some benevolent spirit who knew the paths through this country of despair.

Thick darkness covered everything, and under the veil of this, the hideous inhabitants of the place practised all.

But there was one delectable part in this horrid region--the Sekhet Hetepet, the Elysian fields which contained the Sekhet Aaru, or the Field of Reeds, where dwelt the god Osiris and his company.

At first he had domain over this part of the Duat alone, but gradually he succeeded in extending it over the entire country of the dead, of which he was monarch.

We find also a god of the Duat named Duati, but who appears to have been more a personification of the region than anything else.

Now the wish of all good men was to win to the kingdom of Osiris, and to that end they made an exhaustive study of the prayers and ritual of the Book of the Dead , in order that they might the more easily penetrate to the region of bliss.

This they might reach by two ways--by land and by water. The path by water was no whit less dreadful than that by land, the passage of the soul being barred by streams of fire and boiling water, and the banks of the rivers navigated were populous with evil spirits.

A hymn of praise to Ra when he riseth upon the horizon, and when he getteth in the land of life. Osiris, the scribe Ani saith:.

Thou goest forth to thy setting in the Sektet boat with--fair--winds, and thy heart is glad; the heart of the Mater boat rejoiceith.

Thou stridest over the heavens in peace, and all thy foes are cast down; the never-resting stars sing hymns of praise unto thee, and the stars which rest, and the stars which never fail glorify thee as thou sinkest to rest in the horizon of Manu, O thou who art beautiful at morn and at eve, O thou lord who livest and art established, O my lord!

Tem when thou settest--in--beauty. Thou risest and shinest on the back of thy mother--Nut,--O thou who art crowned king of the gods!

Nut doeth homage unto thee, and everlasting and. Thou stridest over the heaven, being glad of heart, and the Lake of Testes is content--thereat The Sebau Fiend hath fallen to the ground; his arms and his hands have been hacked off, and the knife hath severed the joints of his body.

Ra hath a fair wind; the Sektet boat goeth forth and sailing along it cometh into port. The gods of the south and of the north, of the west and of the east, praise thee, O thou divine substance, from whom all forms of life come into being.

Thou sendest forth the word, and the earth is flooded with silence, O thou only One, who didst dwell in heaven before ever the earth and the mountains came into existence.

O runner, O Lord, O only One, thou maker of things which are, thou hast fashioned the tongue of the company of the gods, thou hast produced whatsoever cometh forth from the waters, and thou springest up from them over the flooded land of the Lake of Horus.

Let me snuff the air which cometh forth from thy nostrils, and the nostrils, and the north wind which cometh forth from thy mother--Nut O, make thou to be glorious my shining form--khu--, O Osiris, make thou to be divine my soul--ba--!

Shine thou with the rays of light upon my body day by day,--upon me--, Osiris the scribe, the teller of the divine offerings of all the gods, the overseer of the granary of the lords of Abtu-Abydos--, the royal scribe in truth who loveth thee; Ani, victorious in peace.

Isis embraceth thee in peace, and she driveth away the fiends from the mouth of thy path. Thou turnest thy face upon Amentet, and thou makest the earth to shine as with refined copper.

Those who have lain down, i. In one of the tombs of the New Stone Age was found a flint instrument which, as we know from inscriptions of the dynastic period, was used in performing the ceremony of "opening the mouth" of the dead, a fact that proves that even in the Old Stone Age a ceremony was performed on the dead body with the purpose of assisting the soul, or spirit, to acquire the faculties and powers needed by it in the other world.

In this ceremony the flint instrument was thrust between the teeth of the dead man, and when these were separated his spirit form was believed.

Moreover, may Thoth, being filled and furnished with charms, come And loose the bandages, even the bandages of Set which fetter my mouth; and may the god.

May my mouth be opened, may my mouth be unclosed by Shu with his iron knife wherewith he opened the mouths of the gods. I am the goddess Sekhet, and I sit upon --my--place in the great wind?

I am the great goddess Sah who dwelleth among the Souls of Annu--Heliopolis Now as concerning every charm and all the words which may be spoken against me, may the gods resist them, and may each and every one of the company of the gods withstand them.

The Osiris Ani, triumphant, saith:. Grant thou that my soul may come unto me from wheresoever it may be.

If--it--would tarry, let then my soul be brought unto me from wherever it may be, for thou shalt find the Eye of Horns standing by thee like unto those beings who are like unto Osiris, and who.

Let not the Osiris Ani, triumphant, lie down in death among those who lie down in Annu, the land wherein souls are joined unto their bodies even in thousands.

Let me have possession of my ba--soul--, and of my khu, and let me triumph therewith in every place wheresoever it may be. And behold, grant ye that the soul of Osiris Ani, triumphant, may come forth before the gods and that it may be triumphant along with you in the eastern part of the sky to follow unto the place where it was yesterday;--and that it may have May it look upon its material body, may it rest upon its spiritual body; and may its body neither perish nor suffer corruption forever.

These words are to be said over a soul of gold inlaid with precious stones and placed on the breast of Osiris. The chapter of driving evil recollections from the mouth.

The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, the son of the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Amen-hetep, triumphant, saith:.

Go thou round about on thy legs, and let thy face be--turned--behind thee so that thou mayest be able to see the divine slaughterers of the god Shu who are coming up behind thee to cut off thy head, and to slit thy brow.

Work thou for me so that the memory of evil things shall dart from my mouth; let not my head be cut off; let not my brow be slit; and let not my mouth be shut fast by reason of the incantations which thou hast within thee, according to that which thou doest for the Khus through the incantations which they have within themselves.

Get thee back and depart at the--sound of--the two speeches which the goddess Isis uttered when thou didst come to cast the recollection of evil things unto the.

And Osiris went back, for the abomination of thee was in him; and thou didst go back, for the abomination of him is in thee. I have gone back, for the abomination of thee is in me; and thou shalt go back, for the abomination of me is in thee.

Thou wouldst come unto me, but I say that thou shalt not advance to me so that I come to an end, and--I--say then to the divine slaughterers of the god Shu, 'Depart.

The chapter of not letting the soul of Nu, triumphant, be captive in the underworld. O thou mighty one of Souls, thou divine Soul, thou possessor of terrible power, who dost put the fear of thyself into the gods, thou who art crowned upon thy throne of majesty, I pray thee to make a way for the ba--soul--, and for the khu, and the khaibit--shade--of the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant--and let him be--provided therewith.

I am a perfect khu, and I have made--my--way unto the place wherein dwell Ra and Hathor. If this chapter be known--by the deceased--he shall be able to transform himself into a khu provided--with his soul and with his shade--in the underworld, and he shall never be held captive at any door in Amentet, in entering in or in coming out.

The chapter of opening the tomb of the soul--and--to the shade of Osiris the scribe Nebseni, the lord of reverence, born of the lady of the house, Mut-restha, triumphant, so that he may come forth by day and have dominion over his fleet.

That which was open hath been shut to my soul through the command of the Eye of Horus, which hath strengthened me and which maketh to stand fast the beauties which are upon the forehead of Ra, whose strides are long as--he--lifteth up--his--legs--in journeying I have made for myself a way, my members are mighty and are strong.

I am Horus the avenger of his divine father. I am he who bringeth along his divine father, and who bringeth along his mother by means of his sceptre?

Grant that the eye of Horus, which maketh the. Oh, keep not captive my soul, Oh, keep not ward over my shade, but let a way be opened for my soul--and--and for my shade, and let--them--see the Great God in the shrine on the day of the judgment of souls, and let--them--recite the utterances of Osiris, whose habitations are hidden, to those who guard the members of Osiris, and who keep ward over the Khus, and who hold captive the shades of the dead who would work evil against me, so that they shall--not--work evil against me.

May a way for thy double--Ka--along with thee and along with--thy--soul be prepared by those who keep ward over the members of Osiris, and who bold captive the shades of the dead.

Heaven shall--not--keep thee, the earth shall--not--hold thee captive, thou shalt not have they being with the divine beings who make slaughter, but thou shalt have dominion over thy legs, and thou shalt advance to thy body straightway in the earth--and to--those who belong to the shrine and guard the members of Osiris.

The chapter of not sailing to the east in the underworld. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith:. I am stronger than the strong, I am mightier than the mighty.

If I sail away or if I be snatched away to the east through the two horns," or--as others say--"if any evil and abominable thing be done unto me at the feast of the devils, the phallus of Ra shall be swallowed up,--along with--the head of Osiris.

And behold me, for I journey along over the fields wherein the gods mow down those who make reply unto--their words--; now verily the two horns of the god Khepera shall be thrust aside, and verily pus shall spring into being in the eye of Tem along with corruption if I be kept in restraint, or if I have gone toward the east, or if the feast of devils be made in my presence, or if any malignant wound be inflicted upon me.

The chapter of being nigh unto Thoth and of giving glory unto a man in the underworld. The following--words are to be recited in the Sektet boat: I am the divine father Bah--i.

Behold ye me, then, O great gods of majesty who dwell among the Souls of Annu, for I am lifted up over you. I am the god Menkh--i. Verily I have cleansed my soul, O great god of majesty, set not before me the evil obstacles which issue from thy mouth, and let not destruction come round about me, or upon me.

His mother suckles him and offers him her breast, which is on the horizon at Dawn. Chapter for Coining forth by day and Living after death. Oh thou Only One, i who shinest from the Moon, let me come forth amid that train 2 of thine, at large, 3 and let me be revealed 4 as one of those in glory.

This chapter occurs in only two of the ancient MSS. I 'unicus,' the Sole and Only One, is one of the many. Another chapter like it.

Oh Tmu, who proceedest from Ur-henhenu, i who art resplen- dent as the Lion-faced, 2 and who strewest thy words to those who are before thee ; Here cometh the faithful N, from the band of those who do the bidding of thy words.

As Ra is bom from Yesterday, so he too is born from Yesterday, and as every god exulteth in life, so shall N exult even as they exult in life.

The two notions, however, are found in combination in the Pyramid texts of Unas 1. See note 8 on Chapter i.

It is I who travel on the Stream i which divideth the divine Pair, 2 I am come, let there be given to me the lands of Osiris.

This fourth chapter has not as yet been found in any of the papyri of the best period. See Chapter 61, and F. He saith, I am he who raiseth the hand which is motionless, and I come forth at the hour.

This chapter is found in several of the best MSS. The Turin text differs greatly from that of the older copies, and the transposition of words clearly shows how little the transcribers under- stood what they were writing.

I follow chiefly the text of Aa, the papyrus of Nebseni. These words only occur in the later copies.

The ' living Soul ' is that of the Sun, whether he is called Ra or Osiris. I do not know how far it is correct to illustrate this undoubted origin of the Egyptian name for the Ape, as ' the saluting one,' by the following extract of a letter to Cuvier from M.

Duvaucelle, about the Siamang apes in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen in Sumatra. This is the morning call of the mountain Malays, but to the inhabitants of the town, who are unaccustomed to it, it is a most insupportable annoyance.

They it is who light him on both sides, and go forth in advance of him And when he arises they turn into six cynocephali.

But if the scribe had consulted the oldest texts accessible in his day, he would probably have seen another way out.

It is the technical term used in the Tablet of Canopus for the inducting, by the king, of priests into their offices. And it is easy to see how the later text, which is already found in Ax, has been corrupted out of the older.

Chapter whereby the fimereal Statuettes may be made to do ivork for a person i? O Statuette i there!

Should I be called and appointed to do any of the labours that are done in the Netherworld by a person according to his abilities, lo! Here am I, whithersoever thou callest me.

This chapter is inscribed on the funereal statuettes, of which enormous quantities are found ; sometimes by hundreds in the neighbourhood of a single mummy.

Much information on the subject, both archaeological and philological, will be found in Mariette's Catalogue General des Momunents d'Abydos, p.

Loret's articles "Les Statuettes. But there is no reason for supposing that the earlier form had the same meaning. Chapter of passing through the chine of Apepi which is void.

Oh, One of Wax, i who takest captive and seizest with violence, and livest upon those who are motionless! Let me not become motionless before thee, let me not be paralysed before thee, let not thy venoms enter into my limbs, for my limbs are the limbs of Tmu.

And if thou wouldst not be paralysed, let me not be paralysed. Let not thy languors enter these limbs of mine.

I am the One who presideth over the pole of Heaven, and the powers of all the gods are my powers. I am he, whose names are hidden, and whose abodes are mysterious for all eternity.

It is I who proceed from Tmu, and I am safe and sound. Apepi is the personification of the storm-cloud and, as such, is the enemy of Ra, by whom he is vanquished.

As representing a natural phenomenon of irregular occurrence, he is not deified like Sutu, the Darkness of Night.

The chapter itself was said over a wax figure of the demon. These wax figures of gods and other personages were used not only for ritual but for unlawful magical purposes.

The Rollin papyrus reports about a criminal condemned to death for magical arts. The more recent texts omit this ending and substitute, " I know, I know.

Chapter of openmg the Tuat by day. The Hour i discloseth what the head of Thoth keepeth close, who giveth might to the Eye of Horus. I am that Osiris, the Lord of Amenta, and Osiris knoweth his day, and that it is in his lot that he should end his being, and be no more.

Stay, Horus, for he is counted among the gods. See note on Chapter 17, It must be sufficient here to say that Thoth is a personification of the moon, and that the relations of solar and lunar phenomena are the sources of a great deal of Egyptian mythology.

This is one of the most difficult passages in the Book of the Dead, but I do not see how it can be grammatically understood otherwise.

It is understood from the passage from Light to Darkness and the converse. We should think rather of such phrases as ' annum f perficere,' ' sole perfecto.

Soul most mighty, i here am I: I am come to thee that I may see thee. I am he whom he loveth. I have come to see my father Osiris, to pierce the heart of Sutu, and to perform all duties to my father Osiris.

I open all the paths in heaven and upon earth. I am the son who loveth his father, and I am come as a mummied one, glorious and well equipt. Oh, all ye gods and goddesses, the path is made for me.

The whole chapter is spoken in the person of Horus, the son of Osiris. I come forth victoriously against the adversaries. I cleave the heaven, I open the horizon and I travel over the earth on foot.

There come forward to me the Glorious and the Great ones, for I am furnished with numberless Words of Might.

I eat with my mouth, and I chew with my jaw ; for, lo, I worship the god who is Lord of the Tuat, and that is given to me which endureth amid overthrow.

Chapter for coming out against the adversary in the Netherworld. Here is the Osiris N. Eater of his arm: I have stretched out my hand, as the Lord of the Crown, and lifted my feet.

I shall not be given up ; my adversary shall fall before me ; he hath been given up to me and shall not be delivered from me. I walk upon my feet, I speak with my mouth, searching for him who hath been given up to me ; he shall not be delivered from me.

There is unfortunately no early text of this chapter, which we have in a very corrupt form, and can only restore conjecturally.

The Eater of his arm is evidently Darkness, which is destroyed by the Sun. Chapter for entering and for coming forth out of the Netherworld.

Salutation to thee, O Ra, who guardest the secrets of the gates i over this domain of Seb, and this Balance with which Ra raiseth up Maat 2 daily: Here am I, who cleave open 3 the earth, grant that I may come and acquire advance in age.

This chapter, like the next, occurs only in Pa among the older MSS. It comes twice in the Turin copy, being repeated as Chapter So Pa ; the Turin copy has 'the Tuat.

In many places it is important to treat Maat as a proper name. See note 20, p. Chapter for entering after coming out from Amenta.

I enter as a Hawk and come forth as a Bennu i at Dawn. Let the way be made for me that I may adore Ra at the fair Amenta, and the locks 2 of Osiris.

I urge on the hounds of Horus. Let the way be made for me that I may adore Osiris, the Lord of Life. This chapter, in the MSS. The Bennu is a bird of the Heron kind.

He is very com- monly but, I think, erroneously identified with the Phoenix. The bird described by Herodotus, H, 73, was in outline and size "very like an eagle," which no one could say of the Bennu.

He appeared only once in five hundred years, whereas the Bennu appeared every day. The fable as told by the Greeks is utterly unsupported by any Egyptian authority known to us.

This passage is, unfortunately, both in the ancient and the recent forms, corrupt. Hail to thee, oh god who sendest forth i the Moment, who presidest over all the Secret things 2 , and protectest the utterance of my words.

Here 3 is a god displeased against me ; let wrong be over- whelmed and let it fall upon the hands of the Lord of Law, Remove 4 the impediments which are in me and the evil and the darkness 5 , oh Lord of Law, and let that god be reconciled to me, removing that which detaineth me from thee.

Oh, lord of offerings in Kenu 6 , let me offer to thee the propitiary offering by which thou livest, and let me live by it and be reconciled.

Let all the displeasure which is in thy heart against me be removed. There is a very great difference between the earlier and the later texts of this chapter.

The Lord of Law is in the singular, but the imperative ' remove ' is in the plural. It is susceptible of different meanings. Adored he Ra, when he riseth up from the eastern Jiorhon of Heaven ; they who accompany him extol him.

Here is the Osiris N, the Victorious, and he saith: Let the soul of N come forth with thee into heaven, let him journey in the Maatit boat and finish his course in the Sektit boat 2 till he reach in heaven unto the Stars which set 3.

Thoth abideth at the prow of thy bark that he may destroy all thine adversaries. They who dwell in the Tuat are coming forth to meet thy Majesty, and to gaze upon that beautiful semblance of thine.

And I too come to thee that I may be with thee to see thine Orb each day ; let me not be detained, let me not be repulsed. Let my limbs be renewed by the contemplation of thy glories, like all thy servants, for I am one of those who honoured thee upon earth.

Let me reach the Land of Ages, let me gain the Land of Eternity ; for thou, my Lord, hast destined them for me. The Osiris N; he saith: And after being concealed from them thou presentest thyself at the dawn of each day.

Brisk is the bark under thy Majesty. Thy rays are upon men's faces ; the golden glories they cannot be told: The Lands of the gods, the colours of Punit 6 are seen in them ; that men may form an estimate of that which is hidden from their faces.

Alone art thou when thy form riseth up upon the Sky ; let me advance as thou advancest, like thy Majesty, without a pause, O Ra, whom none can outstrip.

A mighty march is thine ; Leagues by millions, and hundreds of thousands, in a small moment thou hast travelled them, and thou goest to rest.

Thou completest the hours of the Night, according as thou hast measured them out. And when thou hast completed them accord- ing to thy rule, day dawneth.

Thou presentest thyself at thy place as Ra, as thou risest from the Horizon. The Osiris N, he saith, as he adoreth thee when thou shinest ; He saith to thee when thou risest up at dawn, as he exalteth thine appearance ; Thou comest forth, most glorious one, fashioning and forming thy limbs, giving birth to them without any labour, as Ra rising in heaven.

And when thou turnest thy face to the West, mine hands are in adoration to thy setting as one who liveth ;t for it is thou who hast created Eternity.

I have set thee in my heart unceasingly, who art more mighty than all the gods. Thy mother bringeth thee forth upon her hands, that thou mayest give light to the whole cir- cumference which the Solar Orb enlightenelh.

Mighty Enlightener, who risest up in the Sky and raisest up the tribes of men by thy Stream, and givest holiday to all districts, towns and temples ; and raising food, nourishment and dainties.

Most Mighty one, master of masters, who defendest every abode of thine against wrong. Glorify thou the Osiris N in the Netherworld, grant that he may come into Amenta without defect and free from wrong, and set him among the faithful and venerable ones.

Here is the Osiris JV. Come forth into Heaven, sail across the firmament and enter into brotherhood with the Stars, let salutation be made to thee in the Bark, let invocation be made to thee in the Morning Bark.

Contemplate Ra within his Ark and do thou propitiate his Orb daily. See the Ant fish in its birth from the emerald stream, and see the Abtu fish and its rotations.

Ra springs forth with a fair wind ; the Evening Bark speeds on and reaches the Haven ; the crew of Ra are in exultation when they look upon him ; the Mistress of Life, her heart is delighted at the overthrow of the adversary of her Lord.

See thou Horus at the Look-out of the ship, 9 and at his sides Thoth and Maat. All the gods are in exultation when they behold Ra coming in peace to give new life to the hearts of the Chu, and here is the Osiris iV along with them.

Hail to thee, who comest in splendour, and goest round in thine Orb, Hail to thee, who art mightier than the gods, who art crowned in Heaven and King in the Tuat, Hail to thee, who openest the Tuat and disposest of all its doors.

Hail to thee, supreme among the gods, and Weigher of Words in the Netherworld. Hail to thee, who art in thy Nest, and stirrest the Tuat with thy glory.

Hail to thee, the Great, the Mighty, whose enemies are laid prostrate at their blocks, Hail to thee, who slaughterest the Sebau and annihilates!

By hurling harm against the foe thou hast utterly destroyed all the adversaries of the Osiris JV. Adoration to thee, O Ra: Adoration to thee, O Tmu, at thy coming in thy beauty, in thy manifestation, in thy mastery.

Thou sailest over the Heaven, thou travellest over earth and in splendour thou reachest the zenith ; the two divisions of Heaven are in obeisance to thee, and yield adoration to thee.

All the gods of Amenta are in exultation at thy glory. They whose abodes are hidden adore thee, and the Great Ones make offerings to thee, who for thee have created the soil of earth.

Let me be entrusted to the fidelity which is yielded to Osiris. Come, O Ra, Tmu, he thou adored. Do thy will daily. Grant success in presence of the cycle of the mighty gods.

Very terrible art thou, rich art thou in attributes, and great is thy love to those who dwell in the Tuat.

To be said, when Rd sets in the Land of Life ; with hands bent do7vnward. The Osiris N ; he saith: Her two hands receive thee daily. Thy Majesty hath part in the house of Sokaru.

Exult thou because the doors are opened of the Horizon, at thy setting in the Mountain of the West. Thy rays, they run over the earth to enlighten the dwellers in Amenta.

Those who are in the Tuat worship thee with loud acclaim, and cherish hope when they see thee daily. Thou grantest to the gods to sit upon the earth ; to those, namely, who follow thee and come in thy train.

O august Soul, who begettest the gods, and dost invest them with thine attributes ; the Unknowable, the Ancient One, the Mighty in thy mystery.

Be thy fair face propitious to the Osiris N, oh Chepera, Father of the gods Freedom for ever from perdition is derived through this Book, and upon it I take my firm stand.

He hath written it who spake it, and his heart resteth on the reward. Let there be given me armfuls of bread and drink, and let me be accompanied by this Book after my life.

It is in fact a collection of texts originally independent of each other ; i a hymn to Ra at his rising, 2 a litany, 3 a hymn to Ra at his setting, 4 a hymn to Tmu at his setting, followed by a statement respecting the spiritual importance of the document.

Of the last hymn there are no copies of ancient date, but the other three compositions are found more or less perfect as far back as the XlXth dynasty.

The discrepancies, however, between the ancient texts furnish so much evidence of free composition on the part of the scribes, that it is impossible to suppose that they had before them documents recognised as sacred and canonical.

Naville has found it necessar ' to publish four different forms of the hymn to the rising, and three of the hymn to the setting sun. In the translation here given I have followed the form adopted by the later recension, correcting the text when necessary by the copies written in the better periods.

The text of the Papyrus of Ani has been taken as the basis of the translation of Hymn I. It is the only ancient text which gives the hymn in the form subsequently acknowledged as canonical.

They were what Horace called the "ignes mifwres. Both the Eastern and the Western horizon are mentioned in this chapter, but " Horus of the Two Horizons," has no reference to this distinction.

Whatever the Sun passes through or over is always conceived as double. The Tn'o Earths imply simply the Earth as divided by the passage of the Sun above it.

It is to M. It cannot be used for plants, as they have an origin in something external to themselves.

The Land of the Gods a. Funit dive ihe countries lying east of Egypt. When it is said that gods ' come from Punit,' it is not meant by this that they are of Arabian origin, but simply that Sun ISIoon, and Stars, and Daylight rise in the East.

Is this an oversight on the part of the scribe, or is it one more proof that the Egyptians certainly believed in a sky below the horizon? If so, I have never seen it misplaced.

The Ant and the Abtu are sometimes represented by the side of the solar bark. From the egg of the Abtu there rises the great Cat, the Sun.

It is, as M. In some texts, e. In the later part of the Ani Papyrus it is written with the initial 'V' j. This interesting variant is of extreme value.

It not only explains a word, the very existence of which has been called in question, but tells us the Egyptian name for that seat of Horus at the prow of the Solar Bark about which I wrote a note in Proc.

See the plates attached to the note, and the corresponding vignettes in Todtenbuch, PI. The Litany here translated is that of the Turin Todtenbuch.

It is addressed to " Osiris, the everlasting Lord, Unneferu, Horus of the Two Horizons, of many forms and mighty of attributes.

Hail to thee, An in An. Horus in the Two Horizons, who extendeth his steps and traverseth the Heaven ; he is Horchuta ; Hail to thee, eternal Soul, Soul which is in Tattu, Unneferu, Son of Nut ; he is Lord of Acherta ; Hail to thee, as thou reignest in Tattu, the royal crown is fixed upon thy brow.

Thou art the Only One, the author of his own attributes, thou restest in Tattu ; Hail to thee. Thou art the Lord of Suten-henen ; Hail to thee, who restest upon Maat ; Thou art the Lord of Abydos, thy limbs reach to Ta-tsert ; Thou art he who abominatest wrong ; Hail to thee, in the midst of thy Bark, who bringest the Nile from his fountain ; upon whose dead body the light shineth ; he is the One who is in Nechen ; Hail to thee, author of the gods, King of North and South, Osiris, the triumphant one, possessing the entire universe in his bene- ficent alternations ; He is the Lord of the Universe ; Grant me passage in peace.

I am righteous, I speak not falsehood knowingly, I am not guilty of duplicity. Unfortunately we have no other copy to check the readings.

But it is certain that the sign of plurality is often affixed to words which though in plural form like the Latin nioeiiia, literae, tciiebrae have a singular meaning.

Chabasu means a lamp, and the stars, especially the decans, were called by this appellation. Hamiiieinit is the name given to those yet unborn. And, like the Greek atukXo?

This circle is not necessarily of gods. Whence in this relation arises the Egyptian conception of the number nine? Is it the round we should say the 'square' number, three times three?

It certainly is merely a round number in many instances, but what is still more certain is that the same expression meaning ' circle of gods ' and ' nine gods,' the circle was supposed to consist of nine gods, and was enlarged to companies of eighteen or twenty-seven.

The Turin text seems better adapted for the basis of a trans- lation of Hymn II than the older papyri. These have been used for checking the later text whenever possible.

A difficult passage, but the readings are unanimous. Brugsch translates it " the Talisman of the Earth," and Pierret "le salut de la terre.

But we have to look at the entire context. The expression literally signifies " the back of the earth. The Turin text has Nut, which is inconsistent with what follows.

See the inscriptions in Mariette's Abydos, I, pi. Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, seems to be here addressed. This rubric does not occur in the older MSS.

Goodwin took it up, and it has since been productive of much mischief. The word in itself like Triad , is perfectly innocent and correct, yet every word has its ' cycle ' of associations, and some of them lead the unwary astray.

I had just been lecturing on Plotinus when Goodwin asked me for the word. This hymn has not yet been found in the older MSS.

A text carefully corrected from the papyri of the Louvre will be found in M. They are not meant to imply that ' father of the gods ' was the special attribute of Chepera.

As in mathematics any point in space may be conceived as the origin of a given line or surface, so in Egyptian mythology any god may be rightly called the father of the gods.

And for the same reason. The Day precedes the Night, but not more truly than Night precedes, or in mythological language gives birth to Day.

But we may begin at Daybreak, or at Noon, or at Sunset, or with the Sun or the Moon, or with the rising of the Nile or any other natural phenomenon which obeys an evidently permanent fixed Law.

When Lepsius divided the Todtetihuch into chapters, that portion of it which was numbered as Chapter 16, was in fact merely the Vignette of Chapter In a the Sun is represented as rising into Heaven, saluted by the six Cynocephalous Apes.

He is also saluted by two goddesses kneeling. In the later periods the Dawn was represented by the sign j I'Tj consisting of the Sun rising out of the East, between Isis and Nephthys.

In b the central object is the Sun setting in the West w- He is saluted by three hawk-headed and by three jackal-headed divinities, the Spirits of Pu and of Nechen.

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day out of the Netherworld. I am he who closeth and he who openeth, and I am but One 1.

I am Ra at his first appearance. I am the great god, self-produced ; His Names together compose the cycle of the gods ; Resistless is he among the gods.

I know the name of the great god who is here. I am the great Heron who is in Heliopolis, who presideth over the account of whatsoever is and of that which cometh into being.

Endless Time is Day and Eternity is Night. I am Amsu in his manifestations ; there have been given to me the Two Feathers upon my head.

It is Horus, the avenger of his father, and the Two Peathers are the Urasi upon the forehead of his father Tmu.

It is the Horizon of my father Tmu. All defects are done away, all deficiencies are removed, and all that was wrong in me is cast forth.

I am purified at the two great and mighty Lakes at Sutenhunen, which purify the offerings which living men present to the great god who is there 8.

It is Ri himself. The Lake of Natron and the Lake of Maat 9. I advance over the roads, which I know, and my face is on the Land of Maat.

The road upon which father Tmu advanceth, when he goeth to the Field of Aarru, approaching to the land of Spirits in Heaven.

I come forth through the Teser gate. This gate of the gods is Haukar. It is the gate and the two doors and openings, through which father Tmu issueth to the Eastern Horizon of Heaven.

Let me grasp your hands, me who become one of you. Those who have gone before are Hu and Sau. May I be with their father Tmu, throughout the course of each day.

The battle of the two Opponents is the day upon which Horus fighteth with Sut, when he flingeth his filth upon the face of Horus, and when Horus seizeth upon the genitals of Sut, for it is Horus who doeth this with his own fijigers.

I lift up the hairy net from the Eye at the period of its distress. The right Eye of Ka in the period of its distress when he giveth it free course, and it is Thoth who lifteth up the net from it.

I see Ra, when he is born from Yesterday, at the dugs of the Mehurit cows? It is the figure of the Eye of Ea, at his daily birth.

And Mehurit is the Eye. I am one of those who are in the train of Horus. Said with re- ference to whom his Iiord loveth. Hail, ye possessors of Maat, divine Powers attached to Osiris, who deal destruction to falsehood, ye who are in the train of Hotepes- chaus, grant me that I may come to you.

Do ye away the wrong which is me, as ye have done to the Seven Glorious ones, who follow after the Coffined one, and whose places Anubis hath fixed on that day of ' Come thou hither '!

Hotepeschaus is the divine Flame which is assigned to Osiris for burn- ing the souls of his adversaries. I know the names of the Seven Glorious ones who follow the Coffined one, and whose places Anubis hath fixed on the day of ' Come thou hither.

It is Osiris, as he cometh to Tattu, and there flndeth the soul of Ra ; each embraceth the other, and becometh Two Souls.

I am the great Cat, who frequenteth the Persea tree in Helio- polis, on that night of battle wherein is effected the defeat of the Sebau, and that day upon which the adversaries of the Inviolate god 16 are exterminated.

It is Ea himself. He is the likeness Maau of that which he hath created, and his name became that of Cat Maau. There was conflict in the entire universe, in heaven and upon the earth.

He who frequenteth the Persea tree is he who regulateth the children of Failure, and that which they do. O Ra, in thine Egg, who risest up in thine orb, and shinest from thine Horizon, and swimmest over the firmament without a peer, and sailest over the sky ; whose mouth sendeth forth breezes of flame, lightening up the Two Earths with thy glories, do thou deliver JV from that god whose attributes are hidden, whose eye- brows are as the arms of the Balance upon that day when outrage is brought to account, and each wrong is tied up to its separate block of settlement.

The god whose eyebrows are as the arms of the Balance is "he who lifteth up his arm. The "Wardens of Osiris are the Powers who keep off the forces of the adversaries of Bd..

May your knives not get hold of me ; may I not fall into your shambles, for I know your names ; my course upon earth is with Ra and my fair goal is with Osiris.

Let not your offerings be in my dis- favour, oh ye gods upon your altars! I am one of those who follow the Master, a keeper of the writ of Chepera.

One seeth him not. This god whose face is that of a hound and whose skint is that of a man: Eternal Devourer is his name. It is Osiris to whom was ordained the Leadership among the gods, upon that day when the Two Earths were united before the Inviolate god.

The junction of the Two Earths is the head of the coffin of Osiris [whose father is Rat] the beneficent Soul in Sutenhunen, the giver of food and the destroyer of wrong, who hath determined the paths of eternity.

It is Ka himself. Deliver me from that god who seizeth upon souls, who con- sumeth all filth and corruption in the darkness or in the light: It is that of Queen Mentuhotep.

J An interpolation in the text of Horhotep. Oh Chepera, who are in the midst of thy bark and whose body is the cycle of the gods for ever ; deliver me from those inquisitorial Wardens to whom the Inviolate god, of Glorious Attributes, hath given guard over his adversaries, and the infliction of slaughter in the place of annihilation, from whose guard there is no escape.

May I not fall under your knives, may I not sit within your dungeons, may I not come to your places of extermination, may I not fall into your pits ; may there be done to me none of those things which the gods abominate ; for I have passed through the place of purification in the middle of the Meskat, for which are given the Mesit and the Tehenit cakes in Tanenit.

Tanenit is the resting place of Osiris. Horus offereth purification and Sut giveth might, and conversely. I have come upon this earth and with my two feet taken posses- sion.

I am Tmu and I come from my own Place. Back, oh Lion with dazzling mouth, and with head bent forwards, retreating before me and my might.

I am Isis and thou findest me as I drop upon my face the hair which falleth loosely on my brow. I was conceived by Isis and begotten by Nephthys.

Isis destroyeth what in me is wrong, and Nephthys loppeth off that which is rebellious. Dread cometh in my train and Might is in my hands. Number- less are the hands who cling fast to me.

The dead ones and the living come to me. I defeat the clients of mine adversaries, and spoil those whose hands are darkened. I have made an agreeable alliance.

I have created the in- habitants of Cher-abat and those of Heliopolis. I avenge every god against his oppressor, at whom I shoot my arrows when he appeareth.

I live according to my will. I am Uat'it, the Fiery one. The Lion with dazzhng mouth and with head bent forwards is the Phallus of Osiris [otherwise of Ra].

And I who drop the hair which hath loosely fallen upon my Ijrow— I am Isis, when she concealeth herself; she hath let fall her hair over herself.

Uat'it the Fiery is the Eye of Ra. They who mount up against me, woe to them, they are the associates of Sut as they approach. The seventeenth chapter is one of the most remarkable in the whole collection, and it has been preserved from times previous to the Xllth dynasty.

The very earliest monuments which have preserved it have handed it down accompanied with scholia and other commentaries interpolated into the text.

Some of the monu- ments enable us to some extent to divide the original text from the additions, in consequence of the latter being written in red.

But there is really only one text where the additions are suppressed, and which therefore offers the most ancient form, as far as we know it, of the chapter.

This is the copy on the wall of the tomb of Horhotep. The sarcophagus itself of Horhotep contains a copy of the text along with the additions.

The chapter must already at the time have been of the most venerable antiquity. Besides these two copies of the chapter we have those from the sarcophagi of Hora and Sit-Bastit published, like those of Horhotep, by M.

The British Museum has Sir Gardner Wilkinson's copy of the texts inscribed on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep of the Xlth dynasty, and also a fragment a of the coffin of a prince named Hornefru.

Here then we have an abundance of witnesses of the best period. They unfortunately do not agree. The differences however are chiefly in the scholia.

Even when the explanations of the text are identical, the form differs. These words were evidently additions not merely to the text but to the scholia.

The text of the chapter grew more and more obscure to readers, and the explanations hitherto given were so unsatisfactory as to call for others.

The texts of the manuscripts of the new empire furnish a good deal of fresh matter, much of which is extremely ancient, though the proof of this is unfortunately lost through the disastrous condition of literature in the period preceding the XVIIIth dynasty.

The XVIIIth dynasty and its immediate successors inherited but did not invent the new form of the Book of the Dead, with its succession of vignettes, which however differing in detail bear the stamp of a common traditional teaching.

The manuscripts of a later period bear witness, with reference to this as well as to other chapters, to a recension of an authoritative kind.

The text becomes more certain though perhaps not either more true or more intelligible, and the notes and explanations have here reached their fullest extent.

It would take an entire volume to give the translations of all the forms the chapter has assumed. It must be sufficient here to give the earliest forms known to us of the text and of the first commentaries.

These are printed in characters which show the difference between text and later additions ; all of which, it must be remembered, are of extreme antiquity — some two thousand years before any probable date of Moses.

Explanations or other interesting matter occurring in the manu- scripts of the later Empire will be referred to in the notes. The title in the early copies is the simple one here heading the chapter.

Thy Father Seb hath decreed that thou should be his heir, and be heralded as Triumphant, Horus son of Isis and son of Osiris, upon the throne of hertha gegen hsv Father Ra, through the defeat of thine adversaries. O Ra, in thine Egg, who risest up in thine orb, 14 tage wetter mönchengladbach shinest from thine Horizon, and swimmest over the firmament without a peer, and sailest over the sky book of the dead 125 transliteration whose mouth sendeth forth breezes hertha ergebnisse heute flame, lightening up the Two Earths with thy glories, casino valkenburg poker thou deliver JV from that god whose attributes are hidden, whose eye- brows are as the arms of the Balance upon that day when outrage is brought to account, and each wrong is tied up to its separate block of settlement. Exult thou because the doors are opened of the Horizon, at thy setting in the Mountain of the West. Chapter whereby one arriveth at Restau. The god of mighty names is Thoth, and the later texts read " For this admirer the Heart of the great god who is in Hermopolis. For this Heartof mine is cherry casino deposit bonus Heartof the god of mighty names 2of the great god whose words are in his members, and who giveth free course to his Heart which is within him. By using this site you accept the terms of our Cookie Policy. It represents ' the Great Hoeing in Tattu. Stargames ruckelt work of E. May I not fall under your knives, may I not sit which casino games pay real money your dungeons, may I not come to your places of extermination, may I not fall into your pits ; may there be done lucky247 mobile casino download me none of those things which the gods abominate ; for I have passed through hansel and gretel 1983 place of purification in the middle of the Meskat, for which are given the Mesit and the Tehenit cakes in Tanenit. On the title Erpd, see Tratis. I am Horus the avenger of his divine father.

Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque. These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.

If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.

There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins , [44] reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".

Then the dead person's heart was weighed on a pair of scales, against the goddess Maat , who embodied truth and justice. Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name.

If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life. Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".

This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content. The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society.

For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.

A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased.

They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver, [51] perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.

In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.

Most owners were men, and generally the vignettes included the owner's wife as well. Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead , there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman.

The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m. The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets.

The words peret em heru , or 'coming forth by day' sometimes appear on the reverse of the outer margin, perhaps acting as a label.

Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later. The text of a New Kingdom Book of the Dead was typically written in cursive hieroglyphs , most often from left to right, but also sometimes from right to left.

The hieroglyphs were in columns, which were separated by black lines — a similar arrangement to that used when hieroglyphs were carved on tomb walls or monuments.

Illustrations were put in frames above, below, or between the columns of text. The largest illustrations took up a full page of papyrus. From the 21st Dynasty onward, more copies of the Book of the Dead are found in hieratic script.

The calligraphy is similar to that of other hieratic manuscripts of the New Kingdom; the text is written in horizontal lines across wide columns often the column size corresponds to the size of the papyrus sheets of which a scroll is made up.

Occasionally a hieratic Book of the Dead contains captions in hieroglyphic. The text of a Book of the Dead was written in both black and red ink, regardless of whether it was in hieroglyphic or hieratic script.

Most of the text was in black, with red ink used for the titles of spells, opening and closing sections of spells, the instructions to perform spells correctly in rituals, and also for the names of dangerous creatures such as the demon Apep.

The style and nature of the vignettes used to illustrate a Book of the Dead varies widely. Some contain lavish colour illustrations, even making use of gold leaf.

Others contain only line drawings, or one simple illustration at the opening. Book of the Dead papyri were often the work of several different scribes and artists whose work was literally pasted together.

The existence of the Book of the Dead was known as early as the Middle Ages, well before its contents could be understood.

Since it was found in tombs, it was evidently a document of a religious nature, and this led to the widespread misapprehension that the Book of the Dead was the equivalent of a Bible or Qur'an.

In Karl Richard Lepsius published a translation of a manuscript dated to the Ptolemaic era and coined the name " Book of The Dead" das Todtenbuch.

He also introduced the spell numbering system which is still in use, identifying different spells. The work of E. Wallis Budge , Birch's successor at the British Museum, is still in wide circulation — including both his hieroglyphic editions and his English translations of the Papyrus of Ani , though the latter are now considered inaccurate and out-of-date.

Allen and Raymond O. And behold, the Khus, each one of whom therein is nine cubits in height, reap is near the divine Souls of the East.

A divine city hath been built for me, I know it, and I know the name thereof; 'Sekhet-Aarru' is its name. Behold the scribe and artist of the Temple of Ptah, Nebseni, who saith:.

Behold me now, for I make this mighty boat to travel over the Lake of Hetep, and I brought it away with might from the palace of Shu; the domain of his stars groweth young and reneweth its former strength.

I have brought the boat into the lakes thereof so that I may come forth into the cities thereof, and I have sailed into their divine city Hetep.

And behold, it is because I, even I, am at Peace with his seasons, and with. He maketh the two divine fighters--i.

He cutteth off the hair from the divine fighters, be driveth away storm from the helpless, and he keepeth harm from the Khus. Let me gain dominion within that Field, for I know it, and I have sailed among its lakes so that I might come into the cities.

My mouth is strong; and I am equipped--with weapons to use--against the Khus; let them not have dominion over me. Let me be rewarded with thy fields, O thou a god Hetep; that which is thy wish, shalt thou do, O lord of the winds.

May I become a khu therein, may I eat therein, may I drink therein, may I plough therein, may I reap therein, may I fight therein, may I make love therein, may my words be mighty therein, may I never be in a state of servitude therein, but may I be in authority therein.

Thou hast made strong? He is established upon the watery supports. He is the divider of years, he is hidden of mouth, his mouth is silent, that which he uttereth is secret, he fulfilleth eternity and taketh possession of everlastingness of existence as Hetep, the lord Hetep.

The god Horus maketh himself to be strong like unto the Hawk which is one thousand cubits in length and two thousand--cubits in width--in life; he hath equipments with him, and he journeyeth on and cometh where the seat of his heart wisheth in the Pools thereof and in the cities thereof.

He was begotten in the birth-chamber of the god of the city, he hath offerings--made unto him--of the food of the god of the city, he performeth that which is meet to do therein, and the union thereof, in the matter of everything of the birth-chamber of the divine city.

When--he--setteth in life like crystal he performeth everything therein, and these things are like unto the things which are done in the Lake of double Fire, wherein there is none that rejoiceth, and wherein are all manner of evil things.

The god Hetep goeth in, and cometh out, and goeth backward--in--that, Field that gathereth together all manner of things for the birth-chamber of the god of the city.

When he setteth in life like crystal he performeth all manner. May I gain the mastery over the great and mighty word which is in my body in this my place, and by it I will remember and I will forget.

Let me go forward in my journey, and let me plough. I exist therein, I am strong therein, I become a khu therein, I eat therein, I sow seed therein, I reap the harvest therein, I plough therein, I make love therein, I am at peace with the god Hetep therein.

Behold I scatter seed therein, I sail about among its lakes and I come forward to the cities thereof, O divine Hetep.

Behold my mouth is equipped with thy horns--for teeth--, grant me an overflowing supply of the food whereon the kas and.

I have passed the judgment of Shu upon him that knoweth him, so that I may go forth to the cities thereof, and may sail about among its lakes and may walk about in Sekhet-hetep; and behold, Ra is in heaven, and behold, the god Hetep is its double offering.

I have come onward to its land, I have put on my girdle? I have laid hold upon my strength which the god Hetep hath greatly increased for me. Make thou me to be at peace, bind thou up my sinews and muscles, and make me to receive the air.

O Un en -em-hetep, thou Lady of the winds, I have entered into thee and I have opened--i. Obstacles have been set before me, but I have gathered together what he hath emitted.

I am in my city. O Uakh, I have entered into thee, I have eaten my bread, I have gotten the mastery over choice pieces of the flesh of oxen and of feathered fowl, and the birds of Shu have been given unto me; I follow after the gods and--I come after--the divine kas.

I array myself in apparel, and I gird myself with the sa garment of Ra; now behold,--he is--in heaven and those who dwell therein follow Ra, and--I--follow Ra in heaven.

O Unen-em-hetep, lord of the two lands, I have entered into thee, and I have plunged into the lakes of Tchesert; behold me, for all filth hath departed from me.

The Great God groweth therein, and behold, I have found--food therein--; I have. I have caught the worms and serpents, and I am delivered.

And I know the name of the god who is opposite to the goddess Tchesert, and who hath straight hair and is equipped with two horns; he reapeth, and I both plough and reap.

O Hast, I have entered in to thee, I have driven back those who would come to the turquoise--sky--, and I have followed the winds of the company of the gods.

The Great God hath given my head unto me, and he who hath bound on me my head is the Mighty one who hath turquoise? My heart watcheth, my head is equipped with the white crown, I am led into celestial regions, and I make to flourish terrestrial objects, and there is joy of heart for the.

I am the god who is the Bull, the lord of the gods, as he goeth forth from the turquoise--sky O divine nome of wheat and barley, I have come into thee, I have come forward to thee and I have taken up that which followeth me, namely the best of the libations of the company of the gods.

I have tied up my boat in the celestial lakes, I have lifted up the post at which to anchor, I have recited the prescribed words with my voice, and I have ascribed praise unto the gods who dwell in Sekhet-hetep.

Another chapter of knowing the souls of Pe. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith:.

I, even I, know though ye knoweth it not. Then Ra said to Horus, 'Look at that black pig,' and he looked, and straightway an injury was done unto his eye,--namely--, a mighty storm--took place Then said Horus unto Ra, 'Verily, my eye seems as if it were an eye upon which Suti had inflicted a blow';--and thus saying--he ate his heart.

Then said Ra unto those gods, 'The pig is an abominable thing unto Horus; oh, but he shall do well although the pig is an abomination unto him.

Then said Horus to Ra, 'Give me two divine brethren in the. The chapter of making the transformation into a swallow.

I am the scorpion, the daughter of Ra. Hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet; hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet I --Hail--, Flame, which cometh forth from the horizon!

Hail, thou who art in the city, I have brought the Warden of his Bight therein. Oh, stretch out unto me thy hand so that I may be able to pass my days in the Pool of Double Fire, and let me advance with my message, for I have come with words to tell.

Oh, open--thou--the doors to me and I will declare the things which have been seen by me. Horus hath become the divine Prince.

I have made a computation of what is in the city of Sekhem, I have stretched out both my hands and arms at the word?

I enter in,--I--am-judged, and--I--come forth worthy at the gate of Neb-er-tcher. I am pure at the great place of the passage of souls, I have done away with my sins, I have put away mine offences, and I have destroyed the evil which appertained unto my members upon earth.

Hail, ye divine beings who guard the doors, make ye for me a way, for, behold, I am like unto you. I have come forth by day, I have journeyed on, on my legs, and I have gained the mastery over my footsteps--before--the God of Light, I know the hidden ways and the doors of the Sekhet-Aaru, verily I, even I, have come.

I have overthrown mine enemies upon earth, and yet my perishable body is in the gravel". If this chapter be known--by the deceased--he shall come forth by day, he shall not be turned back.

The chapter of making the transformation into a lotus. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, saith:. I have made--my way--, and I follow on seeking for him who is Horus.

I am the pure one who cometh forth out of the Field. From the Papyrus of Paqrer--see Naville, op. I am the man that knoweth you, and I know your names among--those of--the gods, the lords of the underworld, and I am one of you.

Grant ye that--I--may see the gods who are the divine guides in the Tuat--underworld,--and grant ye unto me a place in the underworld near unto the.

Let me arrive at a habitation in the land of Tchesert, and receive me, O all ye gods, in the presence of the lords of eternity. Grant that my soul may come forth whithersoever it pleaseth, and let it not be driven away from the presence of the great company of Gods.

The chapter of making the transformation into Ptah, of eating cakes, and of drinking ale, and of unfettering the steps, and of becoming a living being in Annu--Heliopolis.

That which is an abomination unto me, I have not eaten; filth is an abomination unto me and I have not eaten thereof, and that which is an abomination unto my ka hath not entered into my belly.

Let me, then, live upon that which the gods and the Khus decree for me; let me live and let me have power over cakes; let me eat them before the gods and the Khus--who have a favor--unto me; let me have.

Let the offering of the sacrifice, and the offering of cakes, and vessels of libations be made in Annu; let me clothe myself in the taau garment--which I shall receive--from the hand of the goddess Tait; let me stand up and let me sit down wheresoever I please.

My head is like unto that of Ra, and--when my members are--gathered together--I am--like unto Tem; the four--sides of the domain--of Ra, and the width of the earth four times.

My tongue is like unto that of Ptah and my throne is like unto that of the goddess Hathor, and I make mention of the words of Tem, my father, with my mouth.

He it is who constraineth the handmaid, the wife of Seb, and before him are bowed--all--heads, and there is fear of him.

Hymns of praise are repeated for--me--by reason of--my--mighty acts, and I am decreed to be the divine Heir of Seb, the lord of the earth, and to be the protector therein.

The god Seb refresheth me, and he maketh his risings to be mine. Those who dwell in Annu bow down their heads unto me, for I am their lord and I am their bull.

I am more powerful than the lord of time, and I shall enjoy. The chapter of performing the transformation into a hawk of gold. I have come forth from the interior of the Sektet boat, and my heart hath been brought unto me from the mountain of the east.

I have alighted upon the Atet boat, and those who were dwelling in their companies have been brought unto me, and they bowed low in paying homage unto me and in saluting me with cries of joy.

I have risen, I have gathered myself together like the beautiful hawk of gold, which hath the head of a Bennu bird, and Ra entereth in day by day to hearken unto my words; I have taken my seat among those first-born gods of Nut.

I am established, and the divine Sekhet-hetep is before me, I have eaten therein, I have become a khu therein, I.

From the Papyrus of Mes-em-neter, Naville, op. My divine son, together with his mother Isis, hath avenged me on mine enemies.

My enemies have wrought every--kind of--evil, therefore their arms, and hands, and feet, have been fettered by reason of their wickedness which they have wrought upon me.

I am Osiris, the first-born of the divine womb, the first-born of the gods, and the heir of my father Osiris-Seb? I am Osiris, the lord of the heads that live, mighty of breast and powerful of back, with a phallus which goeth to the remotest limits--wheremen and women--live I am Sah--Orion--who travelleth over his domain and who journeyeth along before the stars of heaven,--which is--the belly of my mother Nut; she conceived me through her love, and she gave birth to me because it was her will to do so.

I am the Bull at the head of the meadow. Chapter ivhereby the Words of Foicer are brought to a person ifi the Netherzvorld.

Chapter whereby a person remembereth his 7iame in the Netheriuorld. Chapter whereby the Heart is given to a persoti in the Netherworld.

Chapter 'whereby the Heart of a persoJi is not taken from him in the Nethierworld. Chapter ivhereby the Heart of a person is not takefi from him in the Netherworld.

Chapter whereby the Heart of a person may not be taken from him in the Netherworld. Atiother Chapter of the Heart; upon Carnelian.

Chapter whereby the Heart of a person is not kept back fro7n him in the IVetherworld. Chapter whereby the Crocodiles are repulsed who come to carry off the IVords of Power from a person in the JVetherivorld.

Chapter whereby all Serpents are kept back. Chapter whei-eby a person is not devoured by the diveller in the shrine.

Chapter whereby the person is not devoured by a Serpent in the Nethenvorld. Chapter whereby the Apshait is kept back.

Chapter tvhereby the Merta Goddesses are kept back. Chapter ivhereby one liveth by the breath of air in the Nethenvorld, and keepeth back Alerta.

Chapter whereby the Serpent Rekrek is repulsed in the Netherworld. Chapter ivhereby the Eater of the Ass is kept back. Chapter whereby one avoideth the Slaughter which is carried out in the Netherworld.

Chapter whereby one hindereth the Slaughter which is wrought at Sutenhenen. Chapter ivhereby the head of a person is not severed from him in the Nethenvorld.

Chapter zvhereby one dieth not a second time. Chapter whereby one escapeth corruption in the Netherwo7-ld. Chapter whereby he that is living is not destroyed in the Netherworld.

Chapter whereby the seat of a person is not taken from him in the Nethenvorld. Chapter wlicrcby one cometh not to the divine Block of Execution.

Chapter whereby one goeth not headlong in the Netherivorld. Chapter whereby one eateth not dirt in the Nether'ivorld. Chapter zvhereby one is not made to cat dirt, or to drink lye.

Whereby one eateth not dirt. Chapter whereby air is given i? Another Chapter whereby air is given. Another Chapter of breathing.

Chapter for breathing air, and command of ivater, ift the Nethertvorld. Chapter for breathing air and cojnmand of water.

Chapter for breathing air and command of water. Chapter whereby water is drunk in the Nethenvorld. Chapter whereby one is not burnt luith fire, but drinketh water, in the Netherworld.

Chapter whereby one is not boiled in 7vater. Chapter whereby one cometJi forth by day from the Netherivorld. Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day and prevaileth over the adversaries.

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day. Chapter whereby the doors of the Tuat are opened afid one cometh forth by day.

Chapter ivhereby one cometh forth by day. Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day and passes through the Aniniehit. Chapter ivhereby the legs are set in motion upon earth.

Chapter whereby one cometh to Heliopolis and rc- ceiveth a seat there. Chapter ivhereby all forms are assumed ivhich one pleaseth.

Chipter whereby one assumeth the form of the Golden Hawk. Chapter ivhereby otie assumeth the form of the Sacred Hawk.

Chapter whereby one assiimeth the form of the Chief god of the Divine Cycle. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the god tvho giveth Light to the Darkness.

Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the Lotus. Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of Ftah, eateth bread, drinketh beer, and sitteth in the midst of the great gods.

Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of the Bennu bird. Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of a Soul, that one may not come to the dungeon.

Lmperish- able is he who knoweth it. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the Swallow. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of Se-ta.

Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the C? Chapter whereby the Soul is united to the dead Body. Chapter whereby Memory is restored to a person.

Chapter whereby one avoideth being conveyed to the East in the Nethenvorld. Chapter whereby one prayeth for a Palette and an Inkstand.

Chapter whereby is opened the place wherein Thoth resteth. The Book ivhereby the glorified one is made strong, and is made to embark in the boat of Rd, together with those ivho are ivith the god.

Chapter of the safeguards of the Bark of Rd. Chapter whereby one entereth into the Bark of Rd. Chapte7- whereby one openeth the place where Hathor abideth.

Chapter whereby one sitteth in the midst of the great sods. Chapter whereby one propitiateth the Ka, CVI. Chapter ivhereby a largess is presented at Hat-ka- Ptah.

Chapter ivhereby one knoweth the Powers of the West. Chapter whereby one hioweth the Powers of the East. Chapter whereby one knoweth the Powers of Fu.

Chapter whereby one k? Chapter ivhereby one knoiveth the Powers of Her- mopolis. Chapter whereby otie cometh forth into Heaven, and opeiieth the Ammehit: Chapter whereby one knoweth the Poiver of Her- mopolis.

Chapter whereby one taketh the blissful path at Restau. Chapter whereby one arriveth at Restau. Chapter zv hereby one entereth or goeth forth from Restau.

Chapter whereby one entereth into the Great House. Chapter whereby one cometh to the Divine Circle of Osiris.

The Book for invoking the gods of the Bounds, which the person reciteth luhen he appj-oachcth them, that he may etiter and see the Strong one in the Great Abode of the Tiiat.

A Book ivhereby the Soul is made to live for ever, 07i the day of enteri72g info the Bark of Rd, and to pass the Sheniu of the Tiiat.

Made on the Birthday of Osiris. Chapter whereby one proceedeth into Heaven by the side of Rd. Chapter whereby a person is enabled to go round, to visit his divelling in the Netherivorld.

Book ivherebv the deceased acquireth jnight in the Netherworld, in presence of the great cycle of tlu gods. Chapter whereby the deceased acguireth might.

Chapter whereby a Light Is kindled for a person. Chapter whereby a Light is ki7idled for a person. Chapter ivhereby 07ie is e7iabled to enter i7tto Abydos.

The Chapter of the Arrival. Chapter of the mysterious head. Chapter of building a house on earth. Chapter of coming out of the net. Chapter of escaping from the catchers offish.

Chapter of not letti? Chapter of the Tat of gold. Chapter of the buckle of carnelian, which is put on the fleck of the deceased. Chapter of the vultjire of gold, put on the neck op the deceased.

Chapter of the collar of gold, put on the neck of the deceased. Giving the colutnn of green Felspar. Chapter of unfastening the opening in the sky.

Chapter of causing a flame to arise under the head of the deceased. Chapter of landing and 1 being obscured, so that the body may prosper in drinking water.

Chapter of the Pillow. Chapter of brifigitig an Eye. Chapter of raising the funereal Bed. Chapter of causing the Chu to co?? Chapter of raisifig the Chu, of vivifying his soul in the Netherivorld.

Chapter of coming forth by day, of giving praise to Ed in the Amenta, of faying homage to the in- habitants of the Tnat, of openifig the zvay to the mighty soul in the Ahthenvorld, of letti?

Chapter of arriving before the Divine circle of Osiris and before the gods, the guides in the Tuat, before the guards of their halls, the heralds of their gates and the doorkeepers of their pylons in the Amenta, and of taking the form of a living soul and praising Osiris the lord of his circle of gods.

Book of vivifying Osiris, of giving air to him whose heart is motionless, through the action of Thoth, who repels the enemies of Osiris ivho comes there in his form.

Adoration to Osiris, giving him praise, boiving down before Unneferu, falling on one's face before the lord of Ta-tsert, and exalting him who is on his sand.

Chapter of being near Osiris. Giving praise to Osiris, falling on the earth before the lord of eternity ; propitiatifig the god with what he loves, speaking the truth, the lord of which is not known.

When, in the year , Sir Peter Le Page Renouf began the pubh'cation of his translation of the Book of the Dead, his intention was that the work, once completed, should be preceded by an elaborate Introduction, giving, besides all the information concerning the form and tlie history of the book, his views as to its sense and its religious value.

It is hardly necessary to repeat that it is no book at all in the ordinary sense of the word. It is neither a unity nor a whole, it is a collection which has grown by degrees, at various epochs.

Undoubtedly part of it goes back as far as the Old Empire ; the texts of the Middle Empire show already that there were various editions, and we are forced to admit that its origin is not much later than the beginning of Egyptian civilization, as we see that some of the rubrics attribute certain chapters to a king of the 1st dynasty.

In the course of centuries the original text was modified and enlarged, new chapters were added, revisions were made, without casting these detached fragments into a whole.

The various parts of the book were always independent, like the Hebrew Psalms ; the acceptance of a chapter does not necessarily imply the acceptance of the next chapter, and it seems as if the relatives of the deceased chose in the collection which was at their disposal what they liked best, and the number of chapters which corresponded to the price they wished to pay for a papyrus.

Under the Saite kings it seems that a complete revision of the text was made ; a definite order was adopted, which was not rigidly binding on the writers, but to which they generally adhered; various chapters were added, especially the last ones, , which are never found in the older copies.

It seems also that something like what we should call an authorized version was adopted ; and this was done by men to whom the book was ' See Introductory Note to Chapter CXL,.

A great many glosses were introduced, which were copied afterwards in all the hieroglyphic and hieratic texts.

Although we do not find the strict accuracy of Hebrew manuscripts, the number of variants in the Saite, Ptolemaic or Roman texts is considerably smaller than in the manuscripts of the Theban period, and a collation of the hundreds of papyri of late epoch which fill our museums would lead to no great result.

However, it is from a text generally considered as Saitic, but which I believe to be of the Ptolemaic epoch, that the Book of the Dead has been first made known in all its extent.

In Lepsius published the long papyrus in the Turin Museum, a document which he called " the largest piece of Egyptian literature which has been preserved.

He made use of it in his grammar, quoted here and there a sentence taken from it, but he did not make a special study of the document. Lepsius understood at once the importance of the book, which was the vade-inecutn of the deceased, and seeing how much more extensive the Turin Papyrus was than the short copies which had been published before, he traced the whole document and published it two years afterwards.

Lepsius gave to this work the name of Todteiibuch, " Book of the Dead," in opposition to the name of " Ritual " adopted by Champollion, which is certainly incorrect.

It is no Ritual ; a few chapters with a ritualistic character have been introduced into it: On the whole the Book of the Dead differs widely from a Ritual.

It is not the priest who speaks, there are no minute prescriptions as to how a ceremony is to be performed ; all the prayers and hymns are put in the deceased's mouth, it is he whose speech is supposed to be heard in the other world.

Todtefibuch, Book of the Dead, is not a translation of the Egyptian title, which is: As Renouf says, " Three simple words, perfectly unambiguous when taken singly, but by no means easy of explanation when taken together without a context ; " and in fact at the present day no final translation has been given of these three words.

Although his numbering is not quite correct, it has been adhered to in all the subsequent editions. In his lecture- on the Book of the Dead, Renouf insists on the difificulty of translating it: In the first place, the text is extremely - See also Life Work, t.

The unsatisfactory condition of the text is owing to different causes. The reasons which writers on Hebrew, Greek or Latin palaeography have enumerated for the purpose of accounting for mistakes in manuscripts, apply with much greater force to the funereal manu- scripts of the Egyptians ; for as these were not intended to be seen by any mortal eye, but to remain for ever undisturbed in the tomb, the unconscientious scribe had no such check upon his carelessness as if his work were liable to be subjected to the constant inspection of the living.

But the most conscientious scribe might easily commit numerous errors. Many ot them are to be traced to a confusion between signs which resemble each other in the cursive, or as it is called, the hieratic character, but not in hieroglyphic writing.

There are copies which bear evidence that a critical choice has been made between the different readings of a passage, but the common practice was to admit the inconsistent readings into the text itself.

I have no doubt whatever that some of the chapters of the Book of the Dead were as obscure to Egyptians living under the eleventh dynasty as they are to our- selves The most accurate knowledge of the Egyptian vocabulary and grammar will however not suffice to pierce the obscurity arising from what M.

The difficulty is not in literally translating the text, but in understanding the meaning which lies concealed beneath familiar words.

When Renouf gave the above description of the difficulties of the translation, the main source from which he could derive his information was what he called " the corrupt Turin text.

This edition has been compiled from various papyri, as the older ones are much shorter than the later ones ; it is not a single document like Lepsius's Todtenbuch ; most of the chapters have been found in their 'old form; a few are missing, but a good number have been added to the list which have fallen out of the late versions.

Generally it is from this critical text that Renouf made his translation. Occasionally he may choose an older version from a tomb, or perhaps a papyrus of the British Museum, but he hardly ever reverts to the Turin Todtenbuch unless he has no other resonrce at his disposal.

Nevertheless the difficulties which Renouf enumerates are only partly removed. Birch's translation, " Many parts of it, where most faithful to the original, must in consequence of that very fidelity be utterly unintelligible to an English reader.

Under this extraordinary or even ridiculous garment may be hidden some very simple, or even elementary truths. Let us remember that we have not yet unravelled all the intricacies of the Egyptian mythology, which plays such an important part in the book.

Moreover, we only begin now to understand how the Egyptians expressed abstract ideas. When we speak of passion, shame, remorse, hope, we have so thoroughly lost sight of the concrete element in these words, that we are apt to forget that originally they must have been metaphors, and that they must have expressed something striking the senses, and connected with the material world.

An instance will illustrate the difficulty in this translation. Chapter relates how, owing to an imprudent request, Horus was the victim of Sutu, who inflicted a wound on his eye, which caused him great suffering, and the text adds: However, because the work will not bear the character of finality, because some obscurities will not be removed, and some difficulties remain unsolved, there is no reason why a scholar like Renouf should have shrunk from attempting the translation of the Book of the Dead, a work which he had before his eyes for years, and which he considered as the crown of his Egyptological labours.

The lecture quoted above gives us Renouf's ideas as to the purpose and the sense of the book: The renewed existence "as upon earth.

The gods themselves minister to him occasionally, and contribute to his welfare and to his pleasures. The bliss of the future state consists chiefly in the pleasures of agricultural life.

The deceased has the range of the entire universe in every shape and form he desires. He can assume any appearance he likes.

But these transformations are not forced upon him ; he has no definite series to go through ; they depend simply on his pleasure.

XXI Identification with Osiris and other gods. The identification with Osiris, which is already mentioned in the earhest parts of the book, is taken for granted later on, since the name of the deceased is always preceded by "Osiris.

This Osirian nature gives the deceased the power to triumph over the numerous enemies whom he has to face. To these three benefits which the book confers on the deceased we should add a fourth: There is evidently in some of the prayers a remembrance of a time when the deceased were dismembered at their burial ; and this way of treating the corpse is for the deceased an object of horror.

The frequent mention of reconstituting the body, the promises that no part of it shall be taken away, all this shows of what supreme importance it was for him that his body should remain intact.

Without a well preserved body there could be no life in the other world ; its destruction implies the destruction of the whole individual.

This belief is the origin of mummification, for decay is the strongest agent of dismemberment and the certain ruin of the body.

These are the outlines of the principal tenets of the Book of the Dead. If we inquire where they originated, there is no doubt that the bulk of the book came from Heliopolis.

It is the doctrine of that ancient city and of its priests. Some of the chapters may be attributed to the priests at Abydos, as M. Maspero suggests ; but it seems certain that, except for a small part, the birthplace of the Book of the Dead is the city of Ra Tmu, the place connected with the oldest religious traditions of the country, and which may rightly be called the religious capital of Egypt.

Said upon the Day of Burial of N, the Victorious, 3 who entereth after coming forth. I am one of those gods, the 6 Powers who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries on the day of the Weighing of the Words: I am thy kinsman, Osiris.

I am one of those gods to whom Nut hath given birth, who slay the adversaries of Osiris and imprison the 7 Sebau, on his behalf: I am thy kinsman, Horus.

I have fought for thee, and have prevailed for thy name. I am Thoth who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries on that day of Weighing of the Words in the 8 House of the Prince, which is in Heliopolis.

I am with the mourners and weepers who wail over Osiris in 10 Rechit, and who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adver- saries.

Ra issued the mandate to Thoth, that he should effect the triumph of Osiris against his adversaries, and the mandate is what Thoth hath executed.

I am with Horus on the day of covering 11 Teshtesh and of opening the fountains for the refreshment of 12 the god whose heart is motionless, and closing the entrance to the hidden things in 13 Restau.

I am with Horus, as the avenger of that left arm of Osiris which is in 14 Sechem. I enter in, and I come forth from the 15 Tank of Flame on the day when the adversaries are annihilated at Sechem.

I am the Priest 17 in Tattu and exalt him who is on the Height. I am he who seeth what is shut up at Restau. I am the Sem-priest in all that pertaineth to his office.

I am the Arch-Craftsman, on the day in which the Ship of Sokaru is laid upon its stocks. O ye who give bread and beer to beneficent souls in the house of Osiris, do you give bread and beer at the two periods to the soul of iVwho is with you.

O ye who unclose the ways and open the roads to beneficent souls in the house of Osiris, unclose then the ways and open the roads to the soul of N who is with you, let him enter boldly and come forth in peace at the house of Osiris, without hindrance and without repulse.

Let him enter at his pleasure and go forth at his will, triumphantly with you ; and let that be executed which he shall order in the house of Osiris.

No lightness of his in the scale has been found and the Balance is 23 relieved of his case. Papyrus in the British Museum. The text taken for the basis of the translation of Chapter i is that of the papyrus of Huneferu ; Ag of M.

The title here translated is that usual in all the papyri representing the third period of the text. It occurs however in the papyrus Ag of Huneferu, who lived in the days of Seti I, at the beginning of the XlXth dynasty.

It is also found in the papyrus of Ani. Chapter bears the same title in the older manuscripts, which sometimes begin with it. These are two very difficult words, and very different meanings have been assigned to them.

But when the entire evidence is examined the result is plain enough. The 'raising up' or 'resurrection' here spoken of is said not only of the soul but of the body of the deceased person.

The papyrus of Nebseni has preserved two chapters, to which M. Naville has assigned the numbers and Chapter of raising 2ip the body, of giving it eyes a fid the possession of ears, and establishing the head, made firtn on its props.

There are numerous pictures in the tombs representing priests performing this office. Deveria has produced excellent evidence showing that ci Jiiadt-heru has the sense of ' victorious, triumphant.

Bonomi's article , and in no Egyptian text is it used of mortals supposed to be living. The translation "juste de voix," limits the conception of viadt to one of its secondary acceptations.

Nothing is more common than this particle followed only by a proper name, e. There is not the slightest reason for supposing that there is an ellipse of the verb ' saith.

Instead of looking out for moods and tenses and paradigms, Egyptologists ought to wake to the consciousness that the Egyptians never rose to the conception of what we mean by a verb.

Bull, like Lion or Hawk, was one of the figurative names of gods or kings, and Osiris is sometimes represented with a Bull's head.

This word is often wrongly translated 'judges. The sfbmi are the enemies of the Sjtn, either as Ra or Osiris.

I believe that under this mythological name the dark clouds are personified. It must be remembered however that many of the geographical localities named in the Book of the Dead have their counterparts in the Egyptian heaven.

The mourners and weepers alluded to are chiefly Isis and Nephthys. Teshtesh is one of the names of Osiris; perhaps, as might be inferred from a text at Dendera, of his molten image.

The god "whose heart is motionless" is Osiris. Its situation is specified in Chapter 17, line Letopolis, where the arm of Osiris had been de- posited, when the other limbs of the god were dispersed throughout the cities of Egypt.

The Tank of Flame, as may be inferred from the vignettes of the papyri, is where the sun rises or sets.

Feast of the seventh day of the month. It must never be forgotten when reading these texts that the Egyptian priests had divine titles, and that their ceremonies were dramatic, and symbolical of the acts performed by the gods.

The text here is hopelessly corrupt. The translation given follows Ag. One might translate the Turin text, " I lustrate with water in Tattu and with oil in Abydos, exalting him who is in the heights in excelsls ," for this text com- bines different readings.

But n as it is written, may have another meaning. Max Miiller in behalf of this reading of ihe priestly name is quite convincing.

T and the causative 1 furnish the sense, 'I make bright, illustrious, glorious,' ' I celebrate or glorify. One of the designations of Osiris. Some have cleverly inferred that the Egyptians thought that the soul was of a birdlike form, and others have not hesitated to consider ba as expressive of the cry of the ram.

The truth is that in spite of appearances the word ba is not onomatopoeic here. Whether applied to the ram or to the heron, the word is expressive of human action and signifies 'digging through, cleaving, piercing, splitting.

The Ram is called in Egyptian ba on account of the digs which he makes with his head, and a force which has occasioned the name of ' ram ' to be given to powerful engines.

And the word which we translate Soul or Spirit is called Im, because it is conceived as something which 'pierces, penetrates and divides.

The latter, who held perhaps the highest sacerdotal office in Egypt, as high priest of Ptah at Memphis, is repeatedly found combining with his own special office that of the seftt.

Sokaru signifies ' the coffined,' and Ptah Sokaru is only a form of Osiris. Abundant details of the ceremony will be found in the plates of M.

Mariette's Abydos, I, pi. The king Seti I is represented as a Sem priest presiding at the festival. Or 'rid of his business.

The deceased asks, among other things, to appear " before thee, O Lord of the gods, to attain the region of Madt, may I rise up a living god, let me shine like the divine host which is in heaven, let me be as one of you.

Let my steps be lifted up in Cher-abaut. Let the Cher-heb [the priestly ministrant] make invocation over my coffin.

Let me hear the prayers of propitiation. Let the divine ship Neshemet advance for me, let not my soul and its possessor suffer repulse. Let me be a follower of Horus in Re-stau, and of Osiris in Tattu.

And there shall be given to him bread and beer and flesh meat upon the table of Ra: Naville's edition by another, which the learned editor calls i B.

This chapter is found in so very few copies that the text cannot as yet be restored. The two texts published by M.

Naville differ widely from each other. It was known however down to the Roman period, though not inserted into copies of the Book of the Dead.

It is called Chapter of ititrodvcing the Mvmmy into the Tuat on the day of burial. The th chapter bears a similar title.

The word here translated mummy is probably not to be understood of the visible mummy, but of tiie living personality which it enclosed. I I who live upon the flesh of men and swallow their blood.

The chapter finished with prayers in which the deceased identifies himself with Horus, who has taken possession of the throne which his father has given him ; he has taken possession of heaven, and inherited the earth, and neither heaven nor earth shall be taken from him, for he is Ra, the eldest of the gods.

His mother suckles him and offers him her breast, which is on the horizon at Dawn. Chapter for Coining forth by day and Living after death.

Oh thou Only One, i who shinest from the Moon, let me come forth amid that train 2 of thine, at large, 3 and let me be revealed 4 as one of those in glory.

This chapter occurs in only two of the ancient MSS. I 'unicus,' the Sole and Only One, is one of the many. Another chapter like it.

Oh Tmu, who proceedest from Ur-henhenu, i who art resplen- dent as the Lion-faced, 2 and who strewest thy words to those who are before thee ; Here cometh the faithful N, from the band of those who do the bidding of thy words.

As Ra is bom from Yesterday, so he too is born from Yesterday, and as every god exulteth in life, so shall N exult even as they exult in life.

The two notions, however, are found in combination in the Pyramid texts of Unas 1. See note 8 on Chapter i.

It is I who travel on the Stream i which divideth the divine Pair, 2 I am come, let there be given to me the lands of Osiris.

This fourth chapter has not as yet been found in any of the papyri of the best period. See Chapter 61, and F. He saith, I am he who raiseth the hand which is motionless, and I come forth at the hour.

This chapter is found in several of the best MSS. The Turin text differs greatly from that of the older copies, and the transposition of words clearly shows how little the transcribers under- stood what they were writing.

I follow chiefly the text of Aa, the papyrus of Nebseni. These words only occur in the later copies. The ' living Soul ' is that of the Sun, whether he is called Ra or Osiris.

I do not know how far it is correct to illustrate this undoubted origin of the Egyptian name for the Ape, as ' the saluting one,' by the following extract of a letter to Cuvier from M.

Duvaucelle, about the Siamang apes in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen in Sumatra. This is the morning call of the mountain Malays, but to the inhabitants of the town, who are unaccustomed to it, it is a most insupportable annoyance.

They it is who light him on both sides, and go forth in advance of him And when he arises they turn into six cynocephali. But if the scribe had consulted the oldest texts accessible in his day, he would probably have seen another way out.

It is the technical term used in the Tablet of Canopus for the inducting, by the king, of priests into their offices. And it is easy to see how the later text, which is already found in Ax, has been corrupted out of the older.

Chapter whereby the fimereal Statuettes may be made to do ivork for a person i? O Statuette i there! Should I be called and appointed to do any of the labours that are done in the Netherworld by a person according to his abilities, lo!

Here am I, whithersoever thou callest me. This chapter is inscribed on the funereal statuettes, of which enormous quantities are found ; sometimes by hundreds in the neighbourhood of a single mummy.

Much information on the subject, both archaeological and philological, will be found in Mariette's Catalogue General des Momunents d'Abydos, p.

Loret's articles "Les Statuettes. But there is no reason for supposing that the earlier form had the same meaning.

Chapter of passing through the chine of Apepi which is void. Oh, One of Wax, i who takest captive and seizest with violence, and livest upon those who are motionless!

Let me not become motionless before thee, let me not be paralysed before thee, let not thy venoms enter into my limbs, for my limbs are the limbs of Tmu.

And if thou wouldst not be paralysed, let me not be paralysed. Let not thy languors enter these limbs of mine. I am the One who presideth over the pole of Heaven, and the powers of all the gods are my powers.

I am he, whose names are hidden, and whose abodes are mysterious for all eternity. It is I who proceed from Tmu, and I am safe and sound.

Apepi is the personification of the storm-cloud and, as such, is the enemy of Ra, by whom he is vanquished. As representing a natural phenomenon of irregular occurrence, he is not deified like Sutu, the Darkness of Night.

The chapter itself was said over a wax figure of the demon. These wax figures of gods and other personages were used not only for ritual but for unlawful magical purposes.

The Rollin papyrus reports about a criminal condemned to death for magical arts. The more recent texts omit this ending and substitute, " I know, I know.

Chapter of openmg the Tuat by day. The Hour i discloseth what the head of Thoth keepeth close, who giveth might to the Eye of Horus.

I am that Osiris, the Lord of Amenta, and Osiris knoweth his day, and that it is in his lot that he should end his being, and be no more.

Stay, Horus, for he is counted among the gods. See note on Chapter 17, It must be sufficient here to say that Thoth is a personification of the moon, and that the relations of solar and lunar phenomena are the sources of a great deal of Egyptian mythology.

This is one of the most difficult passages in the Book of the Dead, but I do not see how it can be grammatically understood otherwise. It is understood from the passage from Light to Darkness and the converse.

We should think rather of such phrases as ' annum f perficere,' ' sole perfecto. Soul most mighty, i here am I: I am come to thee that I may see thee.

I am he whom he loveth. I have come to see my father Osiris, to pierce the heart of Sutu, and to perform all duties to my father Osiris.

I open all the paths in heaven and upon earth. I am the son who loveth his father, and I am come as a mummied one, glorious and well equipt. Oh, all ye gods and goddesses, the path is made for me.

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Book of the dead 125 transliteration

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